What are polycystic ovaries ?
In Polycystic ovary disease ovaries are larger than normal in size. Central part seems dense and small cysts around the periphery so it is called polycystic.. These cysts are 2 to 8 mm in size fluid filled swellings look like a necklace. Studies says about 1 in 5 women have this problem.
What is polycystic ovary disease?
When patient with polycystic ovaries have symptoms then its called polycystic ovary disease or polycystic ovarian syndrome. 20% of women with polycystic ovary 1 in 3 have symptoms of polycystic ovary disease.
When presence of any two criteria of the following then termed as PCOD
1.On ultrasonography findings polycystic ovaries with 12 or more follicles, 9 to 11 mm in size or increase ovarian volume more than 10 cm3.
2.Oligomenorrhoea (reduced periods), Anovulation (failure to release eggs).
3.Increase level of male hormones (Androgens) on laboratory findings.
Polycystic ovary disease is a problem when imbalance of woman’s hormones occur. Problems with your menstrual periods and difficult to get pregnant. Excess growth of hairs on body and obesity occurs.
Early diagnosis and treatment is most important to prevent further complications.
Hormones change in polycystic ovary disease
Some hormone level become out of balance. When level of one hormone disturb then it affects the functions of other hormone. In this way cycle of adverse effects continue in the body.
Androgen level (male sex hormone) – Normally ovaries make small amount of androgens. When level of these hormone out of control then stop ovulation. Acne develops and excess growth of facial and body hair.
Insulin level – Your body have difficulty to use insulin hormone properly. So there insulin resistance occurs. Due to this blood sugar level increases and after sometime diabetes occur.
Causes of polycystic ovary disease
The cause of this disease is not fully understood till now. But genetics may play role in this disease. It runs in families from one generation to other.
Symptoms of polycystic ovary disease
Mild symptoms are there in starting. Aftertime they become severe if not treated properly.
- Obesity – increase in weight or difficult to loose weight.
- Hirsutism – excess hair on face,chest, back and belly.
- Irregular period – In PCOD woman have less than 9 periods in a year. May be absence of periods or irregular less or heavy bleeding.
- Infertility – fertility problems arises. Woman with PCOD have problem to get pregnant or complications in pregnancy.
- Thinning of scalp hairs
Diagnosis of PCOD
To diagnose PCOD your doctor ask for some questions.
About your personal and family history.
Your menstrual history.
To check your signs of PCOD like extra hair on body, height and weight. To know your BMI body mass index.
To know about your insulin and blood sugar level. Also about thyroid and other hormone level. Pelivic ultrasonography for cysts of ovaries.
Treatment of PCOD
Healthy diet, regular exercise and your weight control is the key treatment in PCOD.
Right treatment reduce your symptoms and prevent further complications.
First step towards management is weight reduction. Atleast reduce 5% of your body weight can leads to positive results. When you loose 5 to 6 kg weight your hormone level comes to normal. Your periods become regular.
You can avoid foods that are high in saturated fats like cheese, meat and fried food items. Eat healthy and nutritious foods. Eat more of fruits and vegetables. Add whole grains, nuts and beans in your daily diet. Your diet rich in fibre and less in carbohydrates. Avoid trans fats,high sodium and fatty foods.
PCOD patients have water retention problem so take small frequent meals throughout the day.
Some natural herbs fenugreek, flax seeds and cinnamon are good for hormone level.
Start doing moderate exercise routine. 30 to 45 minutes walk per day is sufficient .
Quit smoking because smoking raise your androgen levels.
Your doctor gives you some hormonal preparations and metformin tablets. These normalize your hormone levels. You should follow up your doctor regularly.
Keep watch on your exercise and diet plan. Follow your treatment chart and control your PCOD or polycystic ovary disease. Stay fit , enjoy your life.
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